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高尔夫平台

时间:2020-05-26 21:38:10作者:Mckay

导语:在线领A片【AG88.SHOP】高尔夫平台A】ngela Me【rk\el wants\】 Germany to aim to \n\eutrali/se gas e【missions by 2050
高尔夫平台High-c【】lass】 insect dishes【 from New Yor【kCan corals i/n Jordan sa\ve ot【her reefs from g【lobal warming?It【】 sits o\ff the coast of Nor】mandy,【 l【ooking like 】a f\airytale castle flo/ating on】 the water.】But for years, the Mont/ Saint Michel ha】s lost a part of its \mysterious solitude【, due t\o an accumulation of /】silt at the island's base.The concret】e causeway\ that conn\ected the island to the ma【inla】\nd pre\/v/ented the wa\te\】r /from flowly /fre】ely aro【und its base.But, no】w 】the sit】e ha\s begun to reclaim its island-like appearance during cert/a【in high tides.\Research on the proje】c\t start\ed in 1995, an【d continued /for more than/ 10 years.】 It then took another 10 year/s to complete th\e majo/r structural/ changes.\【Mar\ie-Agnés Po\ussi/er-Winsb/ack/, Vice-Presi/dent \of Normandy Regional【 【【Council【, said: "【T/hes\e works had【 two aims. First【ly【, to make sure 】that the island/ /coul/d, once a】gain, b\e what it 【wa【s duri】ng previous 【centuries, that is, surro【】unded by the sea and not s\an【d and silt. And second】ly, 【to\ improve\ the】 way we /ma/nage touri【sm."The \main work undertak】en w】as the remov\al of the\ concr/ete causeway. I/t】 was replaced/ with a brid】ge on stilts, the/refore allowi\ng water【 】to trav【el un】derneath it. It conn\ects to an area of solid gr【/ound that becomes sub/mer\g\ed dur/ing high \tide.Th\e o//ld dam o\n the Co【u/e【snon【 w/\as al【so 【d\emol】i\s【hed, and replaced wi\th /a\ new eig/h【t-gated structure that reg【ulates the 【flow between 】the river 】and the sea, which meet in t/h】e ba/y】.Romai】n D/esgu&e】acute;e, who【】 manages the ne】w d【am, explained to E\urone/ws how it works】."The 】old dam was th\ere to limit floodi\ng 】and mar/ine \flooding. The n】ew dam obvi/ously continues to do so, bu】】t it will regen【erate t/he hydro\logi\cal curren\t in the r【iver to erode the sediment. This will【 rem【ove \the sand t【hat accumulated at the 】base of Mont S】aint M】ichel," \he said.To complete th】is facelift, the car parks at t【he/ foot of the island【 h\ave been\ remo/ved, and it can no/w only be reached by a】 free shuttle bus, horse-drawn/ c【ar【riage, or by foot.More t】han 2.5/ m】illion tourists visit the World He/ritage Site every year, but the】 new 【c【hanges m/【e】an that tou【】r】 guid】es【 have had to adap\t.H【ug】o Poulet, a /gu【ide /】【for Les C】he\min\s de la】 Baie, vis\its the bay【 several 【times a da\y with groups of tourists. He /said that \the structural ch\anges have ha/】】d\ an e【ffect on his wor【k."Since the w\orks hav】e finishe【d, the ground leve】l has drop【ped, 【the sea is moving【 faste\r and no\w 【we \have 】the Cu\esnon pa【ss【ing on 】e/a/\ch side. \We do shorter outing【s, we adapt to\ th【e sea and we manage to 】juggle】\ tha】t,"【 he 【said.The project cost a total of /&【euro;184 mi【llion. Of th】at, €85 million was funded by the Fre\nch government, and €21.5 million was financed by the EU's cohesi】on 【pol/icy,】 w\hich took charge of part of the co/nst\ruction of the dam and its hydraulics.1212121212121212Share this articleCopy/past\e the article video embed l\ink below:CopyShareTweetShare\sendShareTweetS】haresendMoreHideShareSendSh】areShareShareSendShareSh/areMore aboutMont-Saint-MichelEnvironmen/tal protectionTou】rismFrance【 \ 【 \Browse today/9;s tags

How the EU stamped dow\n on de/c\ades of【 illeg\al【 fishing \in T\hai\land

Environmental】【ists' anger after Hung【ary cuts d【own EU-protected for\es\tPush to /restore one of 【Europe's/ o\ldest Rivers,见下图

An international ag\reeme\nt signed in 2018 pre【ventively banned all【】 commercial fishing】 in \the【【 】Central Arct【ic Ocean —【 long befor【e any 】fishi【ng could /\real】istically begin. Why was that ban necessary, and how can marine biologists 【ta/ke advantage of】 planned po【lar/ expedition\s to/ f/ind out more about future fishing prospects in the Arct【/ic \high seas?Dr. Pauline Snoeijs 【Leijonmalm, Professor of Marine Ecol【o】gy a【t S】tockholm University, talked to E/uronews hours before lea【ving Troms&os】lash【;, Norway onbo\ard the Po\larstern\ icebreaker f【or the MOSAiC \expedition at the Nort\h Pole.She bega/n by explaining【 \w/hy we n】eed a fishing ba\n in the region:“We don/’t kn【ow a】nything abou【】/t 【the ecosystem,【 and\ we don’t kno【w anyt】h【ing about which fish we\ have! It’s a very /nutr【i/e】nt-poor ecosystem,\ so I expect ver/y little fish. And then if you st【art fishing, th【en you can destroy the ecosy/stem, or th/e balance of the organisms."MOSAiC Exped/ition'/s research camera【Once th】e/ ic】e disappe】ars, there \could be a ru\sh to fish\ t\he are【a\, which lies outside the exclusive eco】nomic zon\e of th【e\ coastal countries“\So that’s 】why we ne【】ed to kno\w】 now what /we have in this sea that perhaps can be/ exp/loited by anyone," P】rofessor Leijonmalm explains.【 "And 】】of course, we need prot【ectio】n for this are【】a. So what we’re going to do i【【】s to build\ a way to protect thi\s ar【ea 【by c/】ol/lect【ing b【ase】line【 data.&l/d【q/uo;We】 are at the very/ beginning of this/.\ What we are doi\ng is now mappi/ng, and this is t\he first expedi\t】ion tha】t&rs\quo;s going to map. And \the big advantage of conn【ecting\ to such【 a big exp/edition is t】hat we get all the environmental data【】 from the ship’s 】program &】mdash;】 s/o we【 do no】t need to】 /\measure the】 chlorophyll /our【se】lves, or the 】【nutrients, or not【 even th\e zooplan【】】kt】on. We \need o】nly to look【 a】t the fish】, and the other data【 we can use, and connect then】 the fi】sh data t\o. /So that’s/ a very big adv【\a【n\tage of these【【 big expeditions./&rdqu【o;/Pol】arstern ic/ebreaker sets sail】 for the North PoleShare thi\】s art/】\icl/eCopy/pas【te th【e /article video embed \link \below:Cop\yShareTweetShar【esen【dShare\T\w【eetShare【sendMoreHideS】hareSendShareShare/Sha】reSendSha\reShareMore aboutGlobal warming and climate changeFisheryArcticEnviro【nmenta/l protectionGreenland / Mo】s】t v\iewed 【 Wh【at i\nfluence on climate】\ is the cor/o/navirus lockdown really having? \ 【 】 】 】 \ 】 / The new AI system s\【【af【eg【uarding prematu】re【 /babies from infectio】n 】 \ 【 Messe\nger RN】A: the molecule that ma/y teach our bodies to \beat cancer 【 /\ 】 \ App/le\ and G】o\【ogle 】say they'll wo/rk \togethe【r to 】trace sprea\d of cor【onavirus via smartphon】es 【 】 \ \ How EU funding /is ch/ang】ing the face 【o/f Latvia\n innovation 】 】 】 【 \ Bro\wse today/'s【 ta\gsT】ext sizeAaA/aOne ma【n's t】ra/s\h is\ another\】 man's treasure/ - and some people 【build a house out of it. F\or example, thousands of glass bottles can make an ent】ire hous【e\ or chapel, such as Edou】/ard Arsenault's Bottle H\ouses in/ Cape/ Egmon/t, Pr\ince Edward /Island, Canada. He used 2】5,】000 mul【ticoloured bottles to erect t/hree buildings in 】the /'80s. Today it \is a must-see tou/\rist】 attraction.If ther/e is no glass, plastic \bottles can make /a very 【fi\ne alterna\tive. After losi\n【g her\ h【ouse in an earthqua/ke in El\ Salvador, 】87/-yea/r】-old Maria】 Pon】ce【 built a new\ home with \plastic bo/ttle【s, which 【she h【ad】 collecte/d throughou】t se/ven 】months from roadside trash.Maria Be【rsabe Po/nce, 87, st/【ands outsi】de he【r hou/s】e made out】 of \plast/ic\ bottles in the vi】llage of El Borbo】llonReuters/Jose CabezasWood,】 rocks and even an old bus can m\ake a very u】n【ique house,/ such as \the【】 one in Japan, /pho/tographe【d by Christoph Ru【pprecht, a geographer【 from Australia, according to who\】m, this quir/ky house【 \】was built e\【ntirely 】ou】t of discarded trash an\d recycled materials.House made entirely ou/t o\f recycled materials in JapanFlickr/Christoph Rupprecht】Unable\ to find 】【a【 suitab【le/ house,【】 Egyptian Ta/ymour 【El】-Had【idi 【made a big step toward【】s his dream of having/ an environ【mentally friendly home in 2012. /Four years】 /la\ter he【 moved int\o \a small castle【 in Cai【ro, w/here /all the walls, ceilings, windows and \even be【ds are ma【de of rec\ycled\】 material such as discarded concrete block】s, red bricks \a/nd glas/s bot【tles.If yo/u do not have concrete or d\iscarded bricks,】 a few thous/and g\l/a/ss bottles \can be of \h\elp. Si/ngle \mother Ivon【e Martins made a DIY home in \B\【r【azil using\ thousand】s of discarded bottle【s.Hit play the vid\eo a】bove to learn more about these homes m/】ade of garbage.Share thi【s a/rticle M】ore 【fr】om lifeWhat is Earth Day/? | Euronew【s answers'W【asteShark the new remotely controll【【ed 】device【 that removes plastic and floa】【】ting debris from waterThe cement industry is r\esponsible for between 6 to 8 per \cent of global carbon【【 di【oxid\e emissions.Re\searchers looking 】into how to impro【ve the situation h【ave designe】d 】and built【【\】 an experime】】nt//al plant at a cement fact【ory in Belgi\um to try to \find soluti【ons.The factory, whi【ch covers around 70 hectare【s and employs 】around 1 workers, produces an estimated 1.4 million tonnes of 1/】 /di【fferent varieties of cemen/t from a common r】aw material: /limestone.But【 this 】comes wit/h an en】vironmental cost:/"I/f 【we produce one tonne of cement, we generate 0.6\ tonnes of carbon dioxide/. \This carbon 【dioxide main【ly c\omes from】 our raw m】ater【ial】s," s/ays Ja\n 】Theulen, direct/】or of】 al】ternative resource】s at \Heidelberg 】cement.Therefo/re, we need\ to de/velop】 te\chnologies to capture this c\arbon dioxide so that it is not e【mitted to the env/\ir【onment."The factory \has teamed up 【】with rese【archers from the Europea/【n research project, Leilac (\Low Emissions Intensity Lim】e And Cement)】 to search【 for such 】technolog/\ie\s.The outcome is a 6【0-meter/ high plant wit】h a pi【lot reactor th】at&\acute;'s alre\ady able to a/bsor【\【b 5 per c】ent of t】he f\actory&\acu】】te【;s total carbon dioxide emissi】ons\."【Ther\e is a big metal tube/ that´s heat\ed on t/he\ outside 【at /around【 a 1,000 deg】rees.\ The raw material is dropped in the top an\d it falls slowly d/own/. As this mate】rial】 gets heated,】/ it r/ele/ases its carbon d/ioxide. A\n【d th】is pure carbon dioxide c【an sim/ply be captured a【t the to/p," e】xpla\】in】s Leilac project coordin】ator, Daniel Rennie.Researche/rs say the tech】nology \requires 【minimal /chan【ges i【n the factory】&acut\e;s \con/ventional chain of 】cement production, \enabling the capture 】of ca\rbon dioxid【e with/o\ut additional chemicals.Bu/t there are stil】/l differ/ent【 challenges】 th\at need to be addressed."The materi】al /has to be【 able to flow 】do\wn the re】actor. It f】lows down the\ rea/ctor/, b】ut】/ then at the bottom, it n\eeds/ to be co/nveyed \i/n】to the o【th】er units /on sit\e," sa】y/s T/homas Hills, a process engineer, at Calix."T/he 】other/\ impo/rtant technical/ par/amet】ers are ensur\i【ng tha【t we get enough heat into】 the reacto【r and that we put this h【eat in t【h/e right places."The a/i】\m is to be ab】le 】to absorb as mu\ch carb】on 【diox\ide as possible in the safest, m/ost【/ en【erg】y-efficient way.Researc\hers n】eed to constantly assess the safety and efficiency of the whole/【 proce/ss \bo\th】 【\i【\n a co/ntroll/ed laboratory environment and in the\ reactor its\elf\."We take the powder 【befor】e it /go/\es in and measure t/he amount o【f c\arbon dioxide t【hat goes in】 it,"】 】says Hills."Then we measure after pass\ing throu/gh the 【reactor, and we measure【 【that amount of \c/arbon dioxi【de in the powder. And the di/】【ffer】ence is t//he amount \that we cap【tur【e."Researchers\ are now working 】to scale up the tec【hnology 】to captu\re 95 p】er】 cent of the fact/ory´s global carbon dioxide emissio】ns with a view to dev】elopi\ng other circular【 economy 】business models."Be/caus/e we 】are expecting very pure carbon dioxi\de to 】【be cap【tu/red, with】 some purification steps it can /【be/ used for the foo\d industry, it// can \be used for /growing/ plants, it【 can be used for helping /make n】ew fuels, /it can even 【be used in/ m【aterials to help build new prod【ucts【, " says Daniel】 Rennie.\Researchers be【liev\e the t\echn/olog/y can contr\i【bute to reaching the target of 80% re\duction in 【car\bon dioxide emissions i/n Eu】rope by 2050.Journalist name • Ka\ty Dar【t/for/dShare this 】articleCopy/paste the articl】e video embed link below】:Co【pyShareTweetShar【/esendSh【areTwe】etSharesendMoreHideShareSendSh【】are】ShareSh\a】r\eSendShareShar【eY】o】u might also like \ 【 / 】 \ How to increase bio/div/ersity acros】s cities / \ \ \ 】 \ 】 N【e【【w windturbines for green e【ne【rg【/y, che】ape【r a】nd \quicker to build 】 More a】boutIndustry】New technologiesE\n/vir【onmental protec/tion 】 \ Most viewe/d / W\/hat i\nfluence on \climate is the coronavirus lockdown really ha\ving【【?【 【 【 \ Th【\e ne【w AI system safeguarding prema【ture bab/ies from infect【ion / 】 】 /】 【 Messenger RNA: \the molecul【e \that /may teach 】o】ur bodies to beat \cancer / 【 / \ 【Apple an】d Google say t】hey'll work together to trace s【pre【ad /of coron\avi/rus via smartphones 【\ 】 【】 How EU funding is changing the f/ace of Latvia【n innovat/ion 【【 \ Browse today/'s 】ta/gs。高尔夫平台

Text sizeA/a】AaIt tur【n\s out, the Duke of S【us\sex/ is/ an amazin\g phot\ogr】ap\her. And he ch\ose Eart/h D/ay to】 give a proof of that, as【 h【e posted 8 of his s/tunning 【images about natu/re on Inst【agram, in ord【/er to sh【are his environm/ental 【point of view. "Today is #earthday - 【an】 opportun】ity to learn ab/out, celebrate】 【and continue】 to safegua\rd our planet/, our 】home【," the caption reads. Fro】m critically【\ 【en\dang】e/red /species to【】 \plas/tic】 pollution,\ /the selection provide【s\ an ove【rview of today's most pressing en】v/ironme【ntal issu【es./Prince】 Harry's comm\itmen/t to protecting/ \the env\ironment is alrea】dy widely known. The Duke and Duchess of Sus/s\ex even used their own wedding day as an action ag\ai\n/st ocean pollution by as】king wel\l-wis【hers to support cer\t/ain\ cha【rities instead of offering gifts. In the me【antime, Meghan, Duchess of S【ussex ha/s already【\ /been recogniz【ed f/or her 【ethical fashion choices. The /ro】yal household is also com/mitte【d t【o reducing its en\vironmental impact\, amon\g othe\r measures, the Buckingham Palace has anno】unced 】some change/s last\ year】, such as cu\tti】ng back on【 the use of plast\ics, in ord\er】 to figh】t agai/【nst 】plasti】c pollution.Click on the【 video above to/ see the /ph【oto\s ta/ken by Prin】ce Harry.S\hare this article \ More from【 lifeEU&#/039;s youngest commissioner\ on\ how to turn【 clim【ate cri【sis arou】ndMilk-】made fashion from】【 Tu】sca【ny【At the frontline of an 【Ext/inction Rebellion climate protest i/n】 Berlin“Time is running o/ut”, stres\sed Carolina Schmidt, Chi】l\e’s Environ【men\t and Climate Minister, /in a /】video 【ad\dress before 2019&】rsquo;s Cl】/imate Conference COP25 la\st Decembe【r. &ldqu【o;There can【n【ot be 】an effe/ctive】 global res\ponse/ to clima\te cha\nge withou\t a global response o】n\ ocean/ i/ssues,&rdquo/; she added.】 Ocean issues range widely, fr【om sea【-level rise a\nd lo【ss【【 of 】oxygen, to incr】eas/ed water temperatures and ch【anges thr/ou/ghout e】cosys【te】m【s. The Inte【rgovernmental 】Pane\l 】for /Cl/imate Chan【ge&rsquo/;s (IPCC) sp【ecial report on the s\tate// of the oc】ean\s f/eatures worrying future t\rends, while last 】year\, the heat in the oceans saw the highest value/ /ev】er recorded.Ocean aci】di【f\ica】tion 【u【ndermines the integrity of m【arine ecosystemsOcean a\cidifi【c】atio】n is the phenomenon in wh【ich o/ceans are becoming】 mo/re/ acidic, as they /conti【nu】e to a【bsorb more and 】more of carbo】/n in the atmosphere/, which is【 increasing due \to h】uman-produce】d emissions. In the】 last 200 years, about 30 percent【 of those\ total emissions have\ been gu】lped by\ the ocean, and 】today, sea wat/ers st\ill/ take in a【bout 25【 percent annually.Ocean acidification occurs when seawater rea【cts/ 】w】i【th the CO2 it ab【\sorb【s from t/he 】/atmosphe/【re, prod】ucing// 【more acidity-【inducin】g chemicals while redu【ci/ng important 】minerals - such as calcium c【\arbonate - that marine organisms rely on to /survive】.The oceans’ average s】urface ac/idity, ra【ther stable over millions of years, h\as increased by about 26 percent i】n the last 150 years. “It】 【was a very slow rise unt/il the 1950s, but】 from /then on\wards, acidif】icatio/n gained spee】d,&r】dquo【; sa\ys Dr. J【ean-Pierr/e Gat【/tu\so, researc】\h di】r\ector at the Laboratoire d'Oc&eacut\e;a【n/ographie de Villefranch】\e, CNRS and 【the】 Univ【ersity】】 of Sorbonne. “Since man-m】ade CO2\ emiss【/ions are【 the/ main cause of /\acidification, fut】ure proj】ections depend on their 】levels. In a bus/】【ines】s-】as-usual si】tuation, ocea【n acidification c】ould /i/ncrease by anoth】【er 150 percent by 】2100,” a\dds\/ \Dr. Gattuso.With 9 perc/ent of th】e ne\ar-surface ocean affe】cted by fa】lling p】H, aci\】dification eff】e\cts are incre/asing】ly felt globally,】 across【 a wide range of marine \ec】osystems. “The worl\/d seems to be/ ob【\sessing ab【out what is happening on land【【 and in the atmosphere, no【t realis【ing that li\fe on Ea/rth is wholly a 【s】ubsid】ia/ry of t】/he ocean, that 【a【ccounts for 98 【pe】rcent o/f species on the planet,” says Dr. 】Dan 【Laffoley, M/arine【 Vi/c\/e 【Chair 【on IU【CN&【rsquo;s Wor【ld/ Commission o/n Protecte【d Areas and【 Senior Advisor \Marine Science and Conse\rvation 【for its Global】 Marine and Polar Progr\amme. &ld【quo;What was/ predict\e】d [about acidification] back i\n 2004 as\ something we needed n【ot\ to w\orry abo\u/t until 2050 or 207Climate cha【nge【】/ h】a/s played /heavily in 2/019, with activists/ around the/ wor/ld h】olding protests and cal\li\ng on go【vernments t【o make a c【hange. Experts s\ay that the climate emerge】ncy is the most urge】【nt【 /is】sue of o/\u\r time.One organisation, the 【Bari【lla Centre for Food and Nutrition,】 has\ d【【ecided to try】】 and tackle the /proble】m head-on.They say it&rsquo/;s import/ant for t【hem to take a step towards mak/ing an effective c/hange as gre】enhous/e gas emissions creat【ed by】 \food production, distribution and c/onsumption were// &ld【quo;identif\ied 【a/s playing a key role” in the climate\ crisis.This /year 】mar\ks the 10th year that the/ fou【ndation has 】organised /the Inte\rnational \Forum\ on F\oo】d and Nutrition in Milan.The organ】is【ati】on s/ay】【s the forum focusses /on p\romoting drastic change in the mindset of al\l stakeh\olders, whether/ governments, civil society or/ganis】ations, private se】ctor, or research and s/】cience.With 】a thi\rd of CO2 emi\ssions caus】【ed by foo/d p\roduction, the B\arill【a foundation's 'Su-Eatabl】e Li【/fe' p】\roject aims to 【change diets on a large scale.O/ne of the 】expert】s who was at the forum, Ri/cc【ard//o Val】entini, believes/ in o】rder to【 pr【oduce food mor\e sustainably people nee/d to:“【reduce【 their footprint in /terms of/ greenhouse gas emissions, and so to move their diets from unsustainable t/o /more climate-】friendly diets.&rdquo/;Also o】n the agenda was th【【\e Digitising Agrifo【od r/eport, w\hic\h looks at】 new and 】inno/vativ\e ways to prod】uce【 【foo/d in a mo【re environmentall】y friendly way. It involves exploring the potential【 o】f d/igital technol\o\gies to make food produ】ction more sus/tain\able.We spoke 】】to one of the au【tho【rs of the repor】t And【rea Re】nda who explaine】d h【】ow te【】chnology could be u】sed to help tackle the \problem:"【【Puttin\g s\ensors in th/e/ s/o【il and asking t\hose s/ensors to really colle/ct \the i【nforma【tion on whe】n an】d how the】 s/oil should /be \treat/ed, whether the tempera】ture/, whether t\h】e moisture i\s cor【rect, and so【 on/【e can be m\uc【h mo/re surgical in treating\ the soil.”Watch our Spotlight repor/t by O\la】f Bruns for more about what the foundation 】is doing to tackle t】he problem of cli】mate 】change.Share this articleCopy/pas【te the 】article video \em】bed link below:【CopyShar】eT【weetSharesendS】hareTwee】tSharesendM\oreHideSh】areSendShareShare\S\hareSendShar【eShareMore about//SummitFoodEnvironmen\tal protectionMilano 【 【Browse /to【d】a【y's tags 【is happening now.&rdqu】/o;Cutti/ng /the water&/rsquo;s amount of carbo/nate i【ons】 robs a w【ide range of /mari】ne animals of the vita】l material t/hey n/eed t】o 【build protective shells. Mussels, pla\nkton, or\ reef \c】or】als are /some o】f the main sp\ecie/s u【/nder】 threat, multiple s【tudies show./Tropical 【coral reef\ ecosy】stems oc/cupy less t】han\ 0.1 per【ce/nt\ of the o【cea【n floor, but between on\e and/】 9 millio/n species live in and around them. As scientist/s p/\redict 】that calcium car\bonate 】】will drop by the end of【 t/h/e cen【tury, halv【ing its pre-industria\l con/centration across the tropics, /scientists a】re wo】rried that 【corals m\igh【t switch from building to dissol\vi/ng mode. While they might not shr】ink, oc/ea【n ac】idification a】lone 【might lower 】the densit【y of their s\kel】etons, by as much a\s 20 percent by 20. Aci/dific【ati】on weakens/ reef\s facing furth\er /p\ressures from b\leaching-\inducing heatwaves, \as well as economic act】iv/ities\. “We are/ w\eake】ning their repair mechanisms,&rdquo】; says】 D/r. Laff【ol\】e/y. \In【 the ne/xt 20 years, scientists s\ay that】 coral reefs /are lik【ely to degrade f】ast, chall\/enging the l\ivel/iho\o\ds of 0 million people depending \on th】em for food, coastal prote\ction and income.Acidification al/s【o affects deep-water corals\ – such 【as those in the North Atlantic &ndas】h; whi【ch are biodiversity hotspots, critical hab\itats for thou】sands of species,\ \including commercial ones, s】u\ch as shrimps, lobsters, cr\abs, groupers,/ and snappers. “Their skeletons are being eroded /in】】 the same manner as o\steop】or/os\is is weakeni【ng ou/r b\ones/【,” says Dr. Laffoley.A phe】nom/enon not yet\ \fully under】stoo\d\“There are observations of ho\w ocean acidificat【ion【 im\p/ac/ts certai/n species,\】” says/ Dr【. Helen Fi【/ndlay, biol【ogical o【ceanographer at the【 Plymouth Marine La【boratory (PML),\ which uses Copernicus Climate Cha【nge Servi【ce (C3S) data and 【infras\tru/cture to estim】ate the \ocean\】’s pa/st and fut\ure aci【d【ity. These impacts are m\ore often 【asso\ciated with ocean regions where 【deep waters &ndas】h; which 】naturally t/end to be more acidic &nda/sh; r/is/e to the surfac/e, boosting acidificati【on regionally, explains Dr./ \】F【i/ndlay. For instance, acidic w【at/ers d\ama\ge o【r d】【isso/lve the shells\ of plankt/onic 【sea snails, important feed for fish such as salmon.But /【s\tudies have show\n spec/ies can respond in mixed w】ays. Some might benefit from acidification, as well as f【rom ocean 】warming, and /inc【reasingly p/redate other sp【ecies,\ IP\CC experts cla/im. Across ecosystems, microscopic marine algae – 【or ph\ytoplankt/on, the b/asic feed /o】f many 【marine food webs/ &ndash】;【 【m/ig】\h】t suf\fer or flo】urish in more 【acidic seawater. Satellite 【data on ocean co【l【o】ur from the Copernicus Marine Se【rv【ice can provide【\ a closer look a\t the oc\ea/n&】rsquo;s 】C/O】2 uptake and how the marine food】 chain mig/h\t react.“Th】e Copernicus Cli/ma【te/ /Change (C3S) Marine, Coastal a/n/d Fisher】ies (MCF【) Sectorial Information System (SIS) project has【】 produced\ a series o】f marine envir】o\n】ment clim\/ate imp/\act/ indicators\, including several \re/lev\an【t to ocean ac\idification, a【long with a number of too【ls that demo【nstr/ate how th\e indicators can be used in marine applications,&rdq【uo; 】says Dr. James Clark, s】enior scientist at】 PML/【. “A majo【r goal of the project is /to produce a 【set of products that su\ppo\rt Eu\ropean climate change【【 adaptation str\ategie】s and mitigati【【on policies. Indica【tors from the CS-MCF project are being incorporated in【to the C】3S /C】limate Data【 S】tore, and a】re expected to 】g【o /live in the next few wee】ks.&】r【dq/uo;/Impac\ts on /biod/iversityEffects of the 】same】 phenomenon may take different faces across r【egion【s/. Throu/g【/h the mid-2000s, the U.S.&】r【squo;s Pacific Northwest began seeing dramatic】 oyster d/ie-o/f】fs in【 hatcheri【es, as th【\e larvae were affec】te【d by acid/】ifie【【d waters; the vital 【coastal shellfish/ industry was h/i/t\ 】hard. In Canada, scientists e/xpe】ct acidification\ on the Pacific c【oast to 】/give way to increasingly toxic algae】, compromisi\ng shel【lfish, and a】ffect\ing even fish, seabirds and marin【e mammals. 】They also anticip\ate one species of fish-killing a/lgae might wi/n more territo/ry in mo/re】 acidi\c wate/rs, threatening loc【al salmon aquaculture】.In Eur】ope, big mollusc producers】 on the A【tlantic 】】coasts】/ like Fran/ce, Italy, Spain, and the UK are 】expected t/\o 】suffer the most【 from acid】ifica】tion impacts by the 】end】 of t\he century. Data from \t\he Co【pern/icus Marine Se/\rvice, which recently includ\【ed sea】water】 pH am】【o\ng its】 ocean m/onit/ori\ng indicators】, is/ used】 by res【/ear\chers【 to gain a better under\stan/ding 】of how acidifi】cation evo【lves in 】European waters./Acidification effects in/ the A【r】ctic also worry scientists, some predicting that its \【waters wil\l lose its /shell-building ch\em】\icals by t】he 20/80s. Still, there are o】nly spotty measurements of oce】an【 acidification i】n the A\rctic, points o\ut Dr. Gattuso, due to its hars\】h rese/ar\ch condit/io【ns. \&/ldquo;W\/hat we do know】 is that /Ar【ctic wate/rs are natu\/rall/y mo【re【 a【/cidic – as CO2, li/ke \all gases, dissolves much faster in cold \water. We worry【 that in about 10 percen/t of the\/ A【/rctic’s o/cean s】urface, the 】pH is so low tha/t the \water is b】ecoming corrosive to organisms/ with shells,” says D/r. Gatt\us【o.Changes 【in ocean physics\ and chemistry a\nd impacts o】n organisms and ec/osystem service\】s according to /str/ingent 【(R【CP2.6/)/ an\d/ high bu【sines】s-as-usual 】(RC【/P8.5) CO2 emissions scena】rios.Source: Scie/nce Mag】 “The prob\lem【 is we are really asking for trouble by changing\ t\】he fu】nction\ality of the ocean,&r】dquo; says Dr. Laffoley, who highlights that 【th】e mix of acidificatio\n,\ ocean wa/r/ming an】d lo/ss o】f /oxyge【/n i\n the water】 is weake【ni】ng t【he overall system, with poorly u】nder【sto】od consequences. “The scale and the /amount【 of carbon a\nd h】eat going into the\ ocean is j】ust truly j】aw-dropp/ing. It&rsqu/o;s a\ proble【m that we 【are】 rather storing up than r】esolving it./” Reversing acidif】ication i/mpac/ts on ecosyst/ems?【“We have already\ commit】ted 【to ocea】n a【/c】idif\ication to its current levels and beyond【, through the amounts of】 CO2 emi/\tted,\” says Dr. 】Fin/dl】ay.】 &ldqu】o;T\he onl\y certain approach is mitigatin\g CO2 e【missions,\&rd【qu】o; say】s Dr. Gattuso. “It w\ill take\ a long time to go back to【 the preindustri\al stat/e, but we can /stop oce【an acidification./”Scie【【nce\ i【s exploring solut【【i【ons, but their 【effects on\ e【cosyst\ems and oce\an pr\oce\sses are not yet fully unders\tood. \Some oc\ean-based 【climate change fixes don/&rsq\uo;t t/arget directly oc\ean acidifi【】cation, while】 others might not be very efficient at\ lockin/g away the carbon. However, 【“more researc】h is being done 】to investiga\te ho】w 】we can use macro\algae, sea-grass b】eds, man】gr/oves, et】\c to st【/ore c】arb】on and also to lo【cally/ ease ocea\n acidi【fica/tion,” says Dr. Findlay\.Adapting fisheries to ease t/he pr【e/ssures o/n ecosystems 【may also provide a way to live with ocean acidification. For\ exampl【【e, 】C3S and PML are com\【】bining wh【at mod\el【s/ say abou【t potential ef\fects of 】c】【limate change on Europe/an s【eas with 】speci/es inf\ormation /to f\oresee how fish s/\toc】ks mig】ht /change/ and【/ how ind/【ustri\es and people depending\ on fisheri】es need to ada】pt./ /“The C3S data will】 be/ used to identify /areas of opportunity【, such as】【 increases in number\s of some fish species\, a【s we/ll as risks, such as dec/lining fish stocks\,&\rd】quo; says Dr. Clark.\ &】ldquo;As/ a\ \result, the sector will be able to mitigate the effects of climate change 【by p/lan【ning sustainable fi/shing practices./&/】rd【quo;Identifying which pa/rts o】f the【 oce】an need u【rgent conserv】ation cou\ld】 al【so help ecosystems mit】igate aci【dification. Experts have been map/ping c/ritical marine ecos】ystems to spot\ where protected\ areas should be /created or \exte\n/ded. &l/dquo;We can h/ave /places【 【where we take th】at\ pressure off, so we give/ areas of the oceans the be【st\ h】ope 【of ri\din【\g\ out the cha【llen\ges that they face \while we go ab/out reducing CO2 emissions,” s【ays \D】【r. La\ffoley.Share this /articleShareTw\/ee/tShares\endSha/reTweetShar/esendMore/Hide\ShareSendSh】areShare】ShareSendShareSha/reMo】re aboutGloba】l 【warming and climate\ changeOceanEcosystemEnvironmental prot\ecti/onP\artne【r: Copernicus 【 【\ Most 】viewed \ / / / What】 influence on climat【e// is the coronav\ir\us lockdow\n really havin】g? 】 \ The n\】\ew 【【AI system safeguarding prem】ature\ \ba/bies from infection 【 / 】 / 】 \ Messenger RN【A: the mo【lecule that may teach ou【r bodies to b】eat canc\er \ \A/p【ple and Google say/ they'll 】work tog【ether to t\race spread of coronavirus via smart/p】hones \ 】 【 \ How EU funding is chang【ing \the face o】f Latvian innovation \ Browse toda\y�【39;s/ tags。高尔夫平台

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